The Future of Interventional Radiology: What Deterrents are Preventing Women from Pursuing Careers in IR?

Presented During:

Wed, 3/27/2019: 3:18 PM  - 3:27 PM 
Austin Convention Center  
Room: 11  

Final ID:



Original Scientific Research-Oral or Poster 

Poster Type:

Original Scientific Research-Oral or Poster 


D Daye1, M Uceda Arriola2, N Monfore3, N Mecaldo4, S Josephs5, B Hamilton6, N Kothary7, M Kohi8, G Martinez-Salazar9, M Englander10


1Massachusetts General Hospital, Medford, MA, 2Presence St Francis Hospital, Evanston, IL, 3University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 5UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 6Desert Regional Medical Center, Palm Springs, CA, 7Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, 8University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 9Massachussetts General Hospital, Chestnut Hill, MA, 10Albany Medical Center Hospital, Albany, NY

First Author:

Dania Daye, MD, PHD  
Massachusetts General Hospital
Medford, MA


Monica Jackelin Uceda Arriola, MD  
Presence St Francis Hospital
Evanston, IL
Natosha N. Monfore, DO  
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI
Nathan Mecaldo, PhD  
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, MA
Shellie C. Josephs, MD  
UT Southwestern Medical Center
Dallas, TX
Barbara Nickel Hamilton, MD  
Desert Regional Medical Center
Palm Springs, CA
Nishita Kothary, MD, FSIR  
Stanford University Medical Center
Stanford, CA
Maureen Pearl Kohi, MD, FSIR  
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA
Gloria M. Martinez-Salazar, MD  
Massachussetts General Hospital
Chestnut Hill, MA
Meridith J. Englander, MD, FSIR  
Albany Medical Center Hospital
Albany, NY

Presenting Author:

Dania Daye, MD, PHD  
Massachusetts General Hospital
Medford, MA


Women represent about 9% of practicing interventional radiologists suggesting lower recruitment and retention of women in IR. The purpose of this study is to understand the factors, attitudes and perceptions influencing female trainees to pursue careers in IR.


A 20-item survey was sent to all members of the Society of Interventional Radiology Resident, Fellow and Student (SIR-RFS) section as part of an IRB approved prospective study between April and August 2018. Survey-weighted descriptive summaries were calculated for all categorical variables. To quantify the association between gender and key survey items, a survey-weighted logistic regression model was constructed in which each dichotomized survey item was regressed on gender. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and associated p-values were computed.


567 survey responses were received, corresponding to a 21% response rate. Among these, 51% were medical students and 49% were radiology residents and fellows. Females comprised 26% of survey respondents. Demographic composition consisted of 64% Caucasian; 23% Asian and 13% underrepresented minorities. In both male and female groups, difficulty in achieving work-life balance was the most cited deterrent (~44%). Female respondents were less likely to be interested in pursuing careers in IR (OR=1.77, P=0.017). Deterrents notably influencing female career choices included: gender-related bias, desire to have children, and ethnicity-related bias (OR=13.71, 4.79 and 2.31 respectively; P<0.001). Male respondents cited compensation (OR=0.58, P=0.014), and lack of opportunity for professional advancement (OR=0.57, P=0.003) as main deterrents. Female respondents were less likely to agree that women in IR receive equal pay compared to male respondents (OR=0.48, P<0.001). All respondents independent of gender agreed that women are underrepresented in IR (OR=0.76, P=0.298).


Female trainees are less interested in pursuing careers in IR citing gender-related bias and desire to have children as main deterrents. Implementation of targeted interventions is essential to improve the perception of our specialty, and increase the recruitment and retention of women in IR.

Abstract Categories:

Education and Training